John Shuey jshuey at TNC.ORG
Wed Jan 16 15:44:32 EST 2002

There is still some question whether it is truly exotic in Florida.
> Surprisingly, the USDA website (
> lists it as native.  Perhaps most interesting is that The Florida Exotic
> Pest Plant Council (, consisting of eleven of the
> most authoritative botanists in Florida, does not list it as invasive in
> Florida (1999-2001).  Likewise, The University of Florida Center
> for Aquatic
> and Invasive Plants (
> does not list
> it either.
> John Calhoun

I had to scan long and hard to find it listed as an exotic in Florida - but
found it in an appendix of a online management plan for John Pennycamp State
Park.  I am confounded by the fact that some list it as exotic, while
resources devoted to exotics don't mention it.  However, I interpreted the
lack of mention on the Florida Aquatic and Invasive Plant web page as
evidence that it isn't an "invasive exotic" - although it could still be a
"non-invasive exotic".  Most of my paper references (with the northern bias
of our office library) list it as exotic (egg Britten and Brown).

Kinda like watercress in the Midwest - its been here so long that no-one is
quite sure if it is or if it isn't.


John A. Shuey
Director of Conservation Science
Indiana Office of The Nature Conservancy
1505 N Delaware Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202

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