Parasites and Monarchs

Ed Reinertsen ereinertsen at
Thu Apr 7 16:45:30 EDT 2005

Bradley, C.A. and Altizer, S. 2005. Parasites hinder monarch butterfly 
flight: implications for disease spread in migratory hosts. Ecology Letters. 
8: 290-300. PDF file

Dr. Altizer's other papers on parasites has been posted on
her website.

Ed Reinertsen

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Stanley A. Gorodenski" <stan_gorodenski at>
To: <leps-l at>
Sent: Thursday, April 07, 2005 4:12 PM
Subject: Parasites and Monarchs

>I read an interesting summary about a letter that appeared in Ecological 
>Letters 8, 290, 2005. It appears Monarchs injected with Protozoan parasites 
>show reduced flight performance and endurance in experimantal cages. It was 
>estimated this would increase the migration of a Monarch by about 9-10 
>weeks, thereby reducing the chance the butterfly will reach its 
>destination. This was speculated to account for the difference in parasite 
>burden between populations that migrate and those that do not, and that 
>habitat destruction and climate change will increase the prevalence of 
> Stan
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