_Boloria_ (s.l.) chariclea_

Kenelm Philip fnkwp at aurora.alaska.edu
Sat Apr 8 02:06:21 EDT 2000

	Norbert Kondla asked about _B. chariclea_'s status as a single
species (along with what had been called _B. titania_) in North America.
I have nothing to say on the question as to whether Palaearctic _titania_
is or is not conspecific with Nearctic '_titania_'; but I have a few 
comments on whether North American '_chariclea_' is conspecific with
North American '_titania_'. I might add that Shepard, Pike, et al have
heard these comments, do not dispute the facts, but say this has nothing
to do with their arguments or conclusions.

	In Interior Alaska, and also in at least part of Southcentral
Alaska, we find a _Boloria_ with the facies of _chariclea_, which does
the following:

1) it flies in late summer in high-elevation tundra

2) it flie in mid-summer in low-elevation tundra, just above treeline.

3) it flies in early summer (but later than _B. freija_) in bogs in the

	Although _B. chariclea_ flies every year in late summer in the
tundra on the North Slope, in the Brooks Range, and on the Seward
Peninsula--all the above populations tend to fly in odd-numbered years.
In the Fairbanks area, all the specimens I have seen from taiga bogs have
been captured in odd-numbered years with the exception of one colony
on the Steese Highway, as have most of those from low or high tundra,
(although there are some exceptions).

	A _Boloria_ with the facies of what has been called 'titania' flies
in the same taiga bogs in late summer, every year.

	I find it difficult to regard 'titania' and 'chariclea' in Interior
Alaska as conspecific, with their ability to fly in the _same_ habitat
at markedly different times, with the every-year versus the odd-year
flights, and with '_titania_' limited to taiga bogs while '_chariclea_'
flies from arctic tundra through alpine tundra to taiga bogs. Shepard and
Pike find this behavior perfectly consistent with these insects being
conspecific--but I find that difficult to accept.

							Ken Philip
fnkwp at uaf.edu

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