Subspecies and protection

Jean-Michel MAES jmmaes at
Tue Oct 17 13:25:07 EDT 2000

Dear Paul Cherubini,

I have never observed monarch migration in Nicaragua but could be.
Migrations of Urania is east to west, I have observed it. I have observed
also migrations of Eunica monima, in dense groups of some thousands
individuals but they were going down a mountain and I do not have an idea
where they were going to.

In the case of Urania, the migration is well observed by many people, but
once more : "WHY" do they migrate ? The host plant is on the atlantic part
of the country, the climate is better also on the atlantic part, more humid.
So why ? Some people tells me here that, if the people go to the beach, why
not the Urania ? It is nearly a nonsense in both cases.

In the book you mention, which name of subspecies do the use ?


Jean-Michel MAES
AP 527
tel 505-3116586
jmmaes at
----- Original Message -----
From: Paul Cherubini <cherubini at>
To: <leps-l at>
Sent: Monday, October 16, 2000 10:39 PM
Subject: Re: Subspecies and protection

> Pierre Zagatti wrote:
> > Yes, all monarch populations in the tropics are 'non-migrant'.
> Maybe not.
> The Monarch (Danaus plexippus) is reported to migrate in
> Costa Rica. Below is part of the abstract I copied from a paper
> I found in the book "Biology and Conservation of the
> Monarch Butterfly, edited by Malcolm & Zalucki,
> Natural History Museum of Los Angeles, 1993 pp 201-206.
> William A. Haber
> "Unlike the north-south migration of North American monarchs,
> migration in Costa Rican butterflies, including monarchs, was
> oriented east-west across the country between seasonally dry,
> semideciduous Pacific habitats and evergreen Atlantic habitats.
> Emmigration from dry forest peaked in mid-dry season
> (February), while monarch migration peaked in late dry
> season (March-April).²

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