Vanessa at night

Paul Cherubini monarch at
Fri Jan 18 12:35:11 EST 2002

An important point that I think should not be lost in this thread is that
no one has reported seeing V. cardui or any other temperate latitude
butterfly flying freely at night away from artificial light sources.  

Therefore, I feel we have no evidence to substantiate the notion that some
butterflies (e.g. Painted Ladies or Monarchs ) are functionally capable
of sustained, oriented flight (e.g. migration) at night (30 minutes or more
after sunset or before sunrise).

Paul Cherubini


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