Andrew Brower browera at
Mon Nov 4 14:57:08 EST 2002

Hi Bill et al.,

Cynthia resurrected by W. D. Field (1971, Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 84)
cardui, kershawi, virginiensis, altissima, braziliensis, terpsichore,
myrinna, annabella, carye

Vanessa ss. is for atalanta, tameamea, samani, indica, dejeanii

Bassaris ss. for itea and gonerilla

Lately, the monophyly of Vanessa + Cynthia + Bassaris  has been
supported by molecular and morphological cladistic analysis by Nylin et
al (2001, Biol. J. Linn Soc. 132:441-468), although they do not have an
opinion on whether the clade should be one genus or three.


Andy Brower

Bill Yule wrote:

> Hi all.    I notice some workers use the generic concept of Cynthia
> for the so-called "Painted Ladies" rather than the more inclusive
> Vanessa.  Can someone give be a brief idea of the generic concept
> Cynthia and how it differs from
> Vanessa?
> Thanks,
> Bill Yule


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